The evolution of printed circuit boards: a history

Before printed circuit boards (PCBs) existed, point-to-point construction was used by electric engineers. In point-to-point construction, wires are manually connected from on point to another (hence the name). Although people were able to get by with this type of work, point-to-point construction is costly than a computer-aided design developed by a computer software program and is more prone to human error. Short-circuits and wire failures were also a common problem with this type of set-up.

pcbIt was in 1963 when Paul Elsier, an Austrian-born engineer, first invented the PCBs. During this time, Mr. Elsier developed it as a part of a radio. The radio he created was one of the first electronic devices to have a printed circuit board inside it. There were also developments in the processes used in PCBs as early as 1904s when Thomas Edison experimented with plating conductors into linen paper using chemical methods. The United States of America also used them to build proximity fuses back in 1943 for World War II. After the war was finished, commercial use of the PCBs began.

The invention of the printed circuit board was a big leap for the electronics and technology industries as it allowed electronic devices to be reduced to a more comfortable and practical size. PCBs also decreased the human error that can occur during point-to-point construction. Commercially available boards began to increase in size. With smartphones and other portable devices flourishing, it is not surprising that the boards have become smaller to match mobile and miniaturized devices. Fortunately, the size of the PCBs is inversely related to its features and capabilities. Now, most PCBs are equipped with high-performance processors, HD video cards, etc.

Traditionally, PCBs are created as flat, rectangular boards. Nowadays, there are flexible printed circuit boards. High frequency circuit boards are typically produced using rigid boards. Using flexible circuit boards will entail analyzing other additional factors to the materials like the bending properties of the materials and the amount of strain each material and component can take.

Materials used for PCBs have also changed with time. Early PCBs utilized paper saturated with phenolic resin which is commonly known as flame-retardant #2 (FR-2). Flame retardants are materials that are used in the market to prevent the spread of fire or be a safety measure for flammable materials. In the market today, flame-retardant #4 (FR-4) is the most common material used in creation of PCBs. FR-4 refers to printed circuit boards which are composed of fiberglass cloth epoxy laminate sheets. FR-4 became the standard in creating boards because of the rise in powerful processors which in turn needs a more durable PCB.

Old PCBs also made use of lead but in 2006, the European Union (EU) banned the use of lead with the implementation of the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS). Though it was executed and took effect on July 1, 2006, the European Union adopted RoHS back in February 2003. RoHS is for the reduction of toxic waste and address the high amount of waste that is produced by consumer electronics. Since lead is extensively used for soldering, the ban had a significant effect on the production of PCBs. For this, manufacturers sought new alloys to act as the substitute of lead.

It will not be surprising if other developments in printed circuit boards will come in the next few years or even months. With the fast-pace rate of development in technology, it will not take long for manufacturers to develop and innovate more cost-efficient ways of producing printed circuit boards as well as incorporating high-standard materials in the creation of boards.

The invention of the printed circuit boards was a big leap for the electronics and technology industries as it allowed electronic devices to be reduced to a more comfortable and practical size.

Author Bio:

Using flexible circuit boards will entail analyzing other additional factors to the materials like the bending properties of the materials and the amount of strain each material and component can take.

Discover the Significance of Each Lanyard Type

Technological advancement creates numerous types of almost anything. Obviously, this statement can also be applied to lanyards. There are so many kinds of lanyards available these days. Each kind actually gives various benefits to different types of people.Different kinds of lanyard have different qualities.

Functional Lanyards

LanyardFunctional lanyards are very easy to find. The most important role of lanyards is to serve as an item in helping people carry around important things like identification cards, USB memory sticks, cell phones, badges, whistles, and cameras. Even sports coaches use lanyards to hold their whistle. Lanyards help keep frequently used items within reach, lessening the chance of losing anything valuable. Functional lanyards have different prices as well. The process of customization is essentially the determining factor on whether a lanyard would be expensive or budget-friendly.

Aside from being useful for carrying stuff, lanyards are great for corporate purposes. A lanyard that a person is using can help identify to which company that person belongs. Moreover, they can be used as promotional items in different company events.

In some cases, children going on a field trip are also given lanyards. Aside from attaching IDs to those cords, instructions on how to bring the child back to the group (in case he wanders off) can also be attached.

Traditional Military Lanyards

Not many people know that the origin of lanyards is connected with the military. Centuries ago, their main purpose was to keep naval officers and soldiers from losing valuable tools. These tools ranged from the dispensable to the most valuable – from whistles to pistols. Because of this, some military lanyards are so rare that the military personnel of today and even collectors are willing to pay a significant amount of money just to own them.

Stylish Lanyards

The products of a lanyard factory can also be stylish. In fact, some people buy lanyards because they can be hip and trendy. An example of a stylish lanyard is a beaded one. The important factor in this type of lanyards is the looks. They can have expensive materials like jade, topaz, pearls, or other semi-precious beads. They sometimes look like jewelry and are often created by skilled artists. These lanyards serve as an excellent accessory for expensive electronic items like USB memory drives or cameras. Often, they are in different colors and lengths.

The price of beaded lanyards depends on the rope and kind of beads used in making them. However, a disadvantage of this kind of lanyard is that it can be fragile. Beaded cords may look sophisticated, but they do not have the toughness of a cotton or nylon lanyard. In other words, they’re quite prone to wear.

Woven Lanyards

To a certain degree, woven lanyards are sometimes perceived as cultural symbols of the past and faraway places. It is exactly for this reason that woven lanyards are much desired by many people. They are normally fashionable and useful at the same time. This kind of lanyards can be appealing to almost everyone, especially those into relics and ancient cultures.

Collectors may find it very engaging to hunt down cultural woven or traditional military lanyard. Alternatively, those who sell such laces enjoy financial rewards. However, for modern people, nothing is more useful than having a functional lanyard. So, it is not surprising that a lanyard factory usually targets corporate businesses.

These companies know the huge marketing potential of these tiny treasures. They find functional lanyards to be the perfect item for showcasing their company name, logo, and/or message. In other words, these lanyards are used to improve product awareness and to attract new customers.

Silicone bracelets – Of Uses and Options

Wearing silicone bracelets is a very common thing these days. You see people from all walks of life, young and old, wearing them. Celebrities and well-known personalities wear them, too. As a result, it has also become a fashion statement. But there used to be a time, around the early 2000s, when wearing rubber bracelets is reserved only for young people and is not considered hip or cool.

silicone braceletsThe first rubber bracelets worn that actually caused a stir were Lance Armstrong’s charity wristbands, which first appeared in 2003. When these yellow “Live strong” cancer awareness wristbands became hugely popular, wearing silicone bracelets have become quite a phenomenon.  The yellow rubber bracelet quickly stood as a symbol of hope and courage to battle against cancer. Pretty soon, not only Tour de France athletes wear them, but also the athletes who took part in the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece.

Thus, the rubber wristband, which comes in many colors, sizes and designs, have transformed into a must-have accessory. It is a fashion accessory, but more than that, it makes a statement. It has become a platform for getting messages across. Over the years, it has aided in raising money for various charitable organizations and fund raising efforts. Yellow rubber wristbands have now become a symbol for cancer awareness. Other colored wristbands have also become symbolic. For instance, green now stands for kidney donation, pink are for breast cancer awareness, and blue or red is for diabetes.

Uses Of  Silicone bracelets:

Silicone bracelets, as its name implies, are actually made out of 100% silicone rubber. Most manufacturers promise clients that they only use premium, high-quality rubber that lasts. Silicone is a wonderful material because not only does it have a low cost but it is also highly versatile, durable, highly water-resistant, and non-toxic. Silicone as a material is very pliant, so rubber wristband manufacturers can easily customize their bracelets into any design they want. It also shows high elasticity levels, so it easily slips into one’s wrist. Silicone rubber is moderately resistant to heat as well, but constant exposure to the sun may cause its untimely deterioration.

In manufacturing bracelets, there are some manufacturers who scrimp on quality materials by infusing other synthetic rubber materials such as latex into the mix. The result is a non-durable and toxic product.

Customization of the silicone bracelets could either be selected from existing patterns and messages or determined based on customers’ needs and specifications. Color selection and pattern design are first determined, and then customers can choose from a variety of styles. There are even multi-colored bands or marbleized bands that contain various colors. The latest in-demand color design for bracelets are the rainbow wristbands, which are mostly used by the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community during their awareness and fundraising campaigns. Some groups even add glitter and clipart to the already colorful rainbow style.

Various styles include debossed, embossed, colored debossed, pop-out and screen printed. When a certain style is debossed, the image or the words of the message are recessed into the rubber through a special mold called an imprint mold. When the style is embossed, it uses raised letters. This style also uses a mold. The colored debossed style is similar to debossed, but the only difference is that the text has colored recessions. This makes the words more visible to the reader. The silk-screen printed designs have the words directly printed onto the surface of the bracelet. When buying silicone bracelets, this is the best bet for the greatest value in the market.

Nevertheless, you can be assured that the printing technology that companies employ have incredible precision, which brings out quality products.


Female speakers are in demand in conferences dealing with feminism, family, relationships, and empowerment. They are the new voices in the corporate, business, and political worlds. Different companies look for influential and successful females to discuss issues on employment and productivity. They have played prominent roles in society through their individual accomplishments. Well, they are also motivating other women to get out of their comfort zones and claim their share of success.

Keynote speakerAre women being hired as keynote speakers simply due to their success and accomplishments? The answer’s no. While their credentials given them the credibility to talk about empowerment and success, they have this aura of intrigue – something that most of their male counterparts clearly lack. The audience wants to know more about them, their stories, and their remarkable feats. Simply put, the public’s admiration makes these powerful women even more interesting.

As keynote speakers, females are more intimate in dealing with the audience. They make personal and emotional connections with those who are excited to hear their message. They make the audience comfortable about sharing personal stories. They are also sympathetic and understanding, especially when it comes to the dilemmas of other women. Simply put, they are passionate about delivering speeches.

Female speakers can mesmerize their audience with powerful presentations and topics that are close to their hearts. They can make attendees feel every point that they want to emphasize. These make them excellent voices when discussing matters that certain groups of people tend to dismiss as unimportant, such as health and wellness.

Successful women entrepreneurs are also ideal for talks about the challenges of starting a business and the climb towards success. They can create a supportive and active environment, particularly one that’s centered upon enthusiastic women. Interestingly, female keynote speakers are also intuitive and can instantly gauge the mood of the environment. They adjust to this mood by becoming more authoritative or by getting a bit softer in their approach.

Nevertheless, their ability to speak openly and honestly can evoke a sense of emotional journey. This creates a strong bond between them and the audience, promoting true acceptance. Well, this is also why an all-female audience would not be afraid to show their vulnerable side to lady speakers. They won’t think twice before sharing their struggles and they believe in the capacity of such speakers to motivate them towards change or success.

At this point, it should be clear that female speakers tend to speak from the heart. They make their presentations more human by injecting personal stories on vulnerability and fear. They set the motion for a more intimate interaction by sharing their own struggles and defeats. They make the audience part of their own journey of doubts and disappointments, as well as of success.

As keynote speakers, females are likewise known to frame their speech in a global perspective. They know how to manipulate the topic expertly and make the audience become aware of social issues that are affecting the population. When it comes to women empowerment in politics, society, and business, no one can talk more passionately than women who believe in equality.

Successful women are great inspirations to fellow women. They are charismatic, beautiful, eloquent, successful, and goal-oriented. They use these assets to rally for causes that can transform the lives of people. They are also excellent role models for other females who are looking for icons to emulate. Do take note though, that their personal and professional lives can greatly influence women as well as men.

As keynote speakers, they can empower and inspire women with their dynamism, passion, and drive to succeed in life.

Author Bio:
Keynote speakers provides keynotes and break out sessions for corporate events and association meetings that are drop dead funny, motivational and full of proven research results on what the most successful do differently.

Custom Military Coins: A Better Way of Doing the Secret Handshake

Remember the joy of having a secret handshake with your childhood friends? This handshake was something that only the members of the group knew about. It is also conveyed that each person was a bona fide member of the group and was therefore expected to be loyal to it no matter what. Childish as it may seem to most people, the idea behind the secret handshake is something that a lot of adult groups have endlessly been trying to recreate. College fraternities, secret societies, and even civic organizations have all created their own secret handshakes.

However, one thing that most people do not know of is that the military has a secret handshake that dates back to the time of the Roman Legions. The thing is, this so-called ‘handshake’ does not completely involve the hands or any secret positioning of the thumbs and fingers. The handshake involves each person holding their custom military coins on the hand that they use to clasp each other close. The coins serve as a reminder that each individual once served on the same unit and shared the same experiences on the frontlines.

In some cases, custom military coins do not necessarily serve as mementos for people who served in the same unit. It could also serve as a reminder that both individuals who are doing the handshake have been awarded the same kind of token on the same awarding ceremony. These tokens are mostly given to commemorate the bravery of soldiers during a particularly difficult battle. The coins could have been distributed right after the battle was won and the venue could be the same exact venue where the battle was fought.

There are many types of custom military coins that are distributed to various units of the military. This is why it is also possible that a secret handshake involving challenge coins could also be a handshake that is done by two individuals of the same rank. The purpose of the handshake might not exactly be to remind each other of a shared experience. The coins may be inserted on the handshake so that it can be secretly exchanged during the clasping of the hands. This exchange is a little tricky and is mostly done by the most senior officials in the military after lots of practice.

People can easily recreate the secret military handshake with their own posse if they want to. The first thing they need is to create a logo or a design that would best exemplify what the group is all about. They can then send this design over to a coin maker who would take care of the tedious process of engraving the design into a challenge coin. The whole process would usually take no more than 2 weeks. After that, the group would have its very own custom military coins that they can use to challenge each other with or to show their loyalty to the group with.

If a group is reluctant about creating a new design, then they can also choose from the existing list of designs that most manufacturers keep in their archives. This is applicable to groups that have been in existence for a very long time and whose logo hasn’t been recently replaced. These include groups such as firefighters, police departments, the Boy Scouts and the Girl Scouts, the Secret Service, and several other well-established civic organizations.

One thing that every civilian who owns a challenge coin needs to remember is that these coins are not considered currency. This means that they can never be used for buying anything at the grocery store. However, there are certain types of custom military coins that could be sold or auctioned off or pawned. These are often coins that have special historical value or are engraved on 24-karat gold.

Author Bio:
Challenge Coins 4 Less specializing in Challenge Coins, Military Coins and Custom Coins,.We offer a full range of great options to customize and protect your coins and make them a part of everyday life.

Temporary Habitat Using Storage Containers

There are numerous companies relying on storage containers to build temporary habitat. The strength, durability, low cost and ease of transport of the containers are the main characteristics that attract many people into using them as shelters albeit temporary.

ContainersStorage containers come in different sizes and functions. There are refrigerated ones to store frozen foods and perishable supplies that are shipped from one place or one country to another. The refrigerated type is also used to transport huge amounts of medicine and health care products that often require a cold temperature. Then there is the type of container used as temporary shelter or office. This is often the one you see being used to transport goods by land or sea that do not require refrigeration at all.

Used as shelter, it can be stacked high and still be strong enough to accommodate occupants and furniture. There are modified versions of this kind of container that is being used in many parts of the world today to house students, construction workers, disaster volunteers and office staff. The modified storage containers are equipped with windows for ventilation, stairs and even balconies for those living on upper floors. Dividers can also be made to separate rooms or spaces. Any additional openings required can be done by using a torch or a saw designed to cut through most building materials. Containers can also be joined together to create a bigger space.

The cost of using storage containers as shelters is low. This is another reason why you may be attracted to using them as temporary shelters. However, those that are previously used to ship perishables, medicines and chemicals may need to be sandblasted and cleaned thoroughly to make it habitable. Containers that traveled by sea may contain harmful chemicals that make it durable to withstand rain, salt water and pests. Fortunately, you don’t have to spend a lot of time and energy cleaning out old containers if you are looking into using it as a temporary shelter. There are many manufacturers now that make containers free from harmful chemicals.

Containers come in foldable types that are easy to transport and dismantle. They are also made to be assembled in minutes only using less manpower and equipment so you can have your shelter in no time. Some models of these foldable containers can be transferred from one area to another without you having to dismantle the unit. This will save you a good deal of effort taking everything out and putting them back in after the transfer. These models have provisions at their bases so that forklifts can easily lift and relocate the units.

Construction of ordinary shelters is time-consuming. The materials you will need and the manpower you would require will cost you a lot of money just to build a shelter that you would temporarily need. It may not be worth all the trouble. You would also need building permits that you can only obtain after submission of plans, sketches, other numerous technical documentation required, and inspection. Portable and foldable containers will save you time in obtaining any permits required and maybe you don’t need them at all depending on your area and purpose for the temporary shelter.

Storage containers are used widely in disaster relief operations where there is immediate need for temporary shelters. They are used as clinics or first-aid stations for the sick and wounded. Those that lost their homes from floods or hurricane can also be temporarily accommodated in these containers. They can live comfortably while their houses are being rebuilt. Maybe some would choose to have a container as their permanent mobile home so they can move places whenever there is an impending disaster.

14 First-Time Homebuyer Mistakes You Should Avoid

They say that first-time homebuyers are the most gullible market segment in the real estate industry. We disagree simply because they don’t have to be.

We compiled a list of 14 first-time homebuyer mistakes to help you find the property you need and want without the extra bumps along the way.

1. Believing what the bank thinks you can afford.

home buyersWhat the bank thinks you can afford is different from what you can comfortably spend for. Salary ceiling and credit rating are just the borders. They do not set what you can really afford in the next 12 months or years. Only you know your plans and possible expenses.

2. Making an offer before checking your mortgage qualification.

Surprisingly, there are still buyers who make an offer before knowing whether their loan application will gain approval. Don’t expect too much just yet so as to avoid wasting other people’s time.

3. Considering a house you can’t afford.

Wanting something is different from affording something. You can want everything, even the White House, but that doesn’t mean you can have it. Be practical and know your budget before getting too attached to your ideal home. Otherwise, you are just subjecting yourself to unnecessary frustration.

4. Acquiring a house at the start/middle of a lease contract.

Make a projection of how long it will take to find, acquire, and move in to a house. With a good property finder like us, your hunt may be over shortly. However, the actual acquisition and financing may take time. Ask your broker and loan agent for a projected time frame before signing another lease contract.

5. Agreeing to subprime mortgage.

Subprime mortgage is given to borrowers with low credit rating. Because the risk is higher with them, higher interest rate is also used for the computation of the mortgage. Instead of taking the risk, maybe you should just settle for less, a smaller house perhaps. Having something less than what you want is still better than not having anything at all when your property is foreclosed due to payment delinquency.

6. Ruling out the benefits of renting.

Renting for life is like throwing away money, but not if you are only planning to rent for a short period of time. Don’t buy a house in a place you don’t have plans of staying for so long.

7. Relying too much on online loan information and online calculators.

Banks, real estate companies, and other lending institutions already have their own online loan information, but this information are just intended to “inform” you and not to “explain” the details therein. Similarly, online calculators can compute, but they cannot ask you further questions and clarifications. Talk to a real person.

8. Skipping home inspection.

We understand if you want to cut cost on inspection, but this is a crucial procedure to make sure that you are buying a safe house. Many first-time buyers rely on compliance certificates alone, but these certificates only give clearance in accordance to building codes and not the smallest details that may give you discomfort, such as cracks and leaks.

Home inspectors fine $450 and up, but they may recommend additional inspection for the soil/foundation, which starts at $350.

9. Not listening to your intuition.

Intuition is not just an inner voice that you listen to whenever you end up undecided. It is also the command center of your comfort zone. Even if a house surpasses your standards, if living in it makes you uncomfortable for no logical reason, it may still be a bad choice.

10. Expecting high price appreciation in the coming years.

Many buyers plan on flipping their homes after a few years. However, more than the result after a renovation as a factor in price appreciation is the demand in your city or state. You can’t foretell what’s going to happen in the real estate industry in the coming years unless you have background in economics and finance.

11. Choosing a high-maintenance home.

Beautiful houses are normally high maintenance. The entire floor may be laid out by a cushiony Persian carpet, but the cleaning requirements will also be intense. Your backyard may have a pool, but the cost of water replacement and cleaning may be out of budget as well. Look only for what you can maintain.

12. Going back and forth with your offer.

Realtors are some of the most patient professionals in the planet; only the sellers are not. Make a computation of all your present and projected future expenses before making an offer, because an annoyed seller normally doesn’t negotiate well.

13. Seeing the property as it is.

When you look at a property, look at it not at its present state, but how it will look once you transfer. Is it possible to renovate it to the design you want? Will the available space fit your future projects, like a home business or a playground?

14. Compromising non-negotiable requirements.

When a buyer sees something so beautiful, he tends to overlook all other aspects that may bring inconvenience. Finding a house that stands out in the neighborhood won’t work if it doesn’t fit your family’s needs, like the number of bedrooms and the height of the ceiling.

The real estate industry is a tricky one if you are not familiar with it. Seek help instead of pretending to be a know-it-all. We are here to help you find the best property in New York through our most complete listing.

If you are looking for the best place of property search in New York and affordable property investment solution then visit li-realestatefinder

Mistakes to Avoid When Buying Golf Putters

Buying a great set of golf putters can be quite the challenge for both the experienced veterans of golf and those who are just about to start playing the game. There are so many different important

considerations that golfers need to take note of when they want to buy a putter. People cannot just simply stroll into a store and get whatever putter suits their fancy. That is perhaps the surest way of making an egregious mistake.

Golf PuttersThe number of putters to choose from reflects how each of them can be different from one another. All putters are different from one another in at least one respect. The differences between the golf putters are what make it difficult for a lot of people to make the right choice.

Finding the right putter means having to avoid some of the most common mistakes that some golfers make when they go shopping for some. Getting a good putter does not have to be too much trouble. Golfers need to be made aware of some of the common mistakes and pitfalls of getting a putter. Below are some of the few mistakes that golfers should avoid when they are on the hunt for a good putter.

Looking at the price and forgetting the value

Price is what people pay and value is what they get. Too often, many golfers make the mistake of basing their purchase on the price tag.

Some look for the cheapest golf putters thinking they are a wise investment because of the low price. Others look for the most expensive putters believing that these are the best ones out there since price is often reflective of value.

A smart golfer will always understand what they need or want out of their putter. Some golfers like their putters short, some like it long. Whatever the case might be, golfers need to establish the value of a putter by learning how it can satisfy some of their own needs.

Getting the right putter can be relative from one golfer to the other because of the different needs that they might have.

Forgetting to do a bit of home work

Another mistake that a lot of golfers seem to make is doing their homework. It is easy to get persuaded by the descriptions that manufacturers give their products. They always seem to find the words that can make it difficult for people to not buy their product.

Consumers need to safeguard themselves from making a mistake by looking up reviews of a particular putter on the internet. The internet is full of information that can help a person understand the true performance of a club. There are plenty of people on the internet that review golf putters for consumers. These reviews provide a tremendous amount of information that readers can use when they go shopping for a putter.

Not asking for assistance

A lot of golfers really need to stop the habit of walking into a store and getting whatever putter they think is best. To be sure, buying a putter depends mostly on personal preference and feel, but that does not mean that golfers can blithely ignore assistance that can help a person get the right putter.

Golfers need to take advantage of some of the scientific based systems that help quantify a person’s performance. The systems help shine some information on just how changing a putter can affect a person’s performance.

There are a lot of systems like the Tomi or SAM PuttLab that can help golfers find the right putter. These systems show golfers how switching between the different golf putters can have a huge impact on a person’s score card.